Climate Change and Monitoring Systems

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Contents

Summary

Joint programs are ambitious approaches in achieving their products in defined time (three years) and resources (reduced), and require a baseline already defined to operate in rhythm. Particularly when it comes to capacity fortifications, the establishment of strategic alliances between stakeholders to monitor those variables, indicators or signals for attention to the effects of climate change, we must consider that many times it is approved TK , technical and scientific knowledge and communication, in appropriate languages, of the processes associated with adaptation and mitigation to reduce risks to the vulnerability of local communities, indigenous and natural resources, climate change.

To create or strengthen local capacity care to risk the vulnerability of people and ecosystems, adverse effects of climate change should not be limited to the purchase of equipment monitoring climatic variables or environmental quality, or the installation of communications systems. It is necessary to combine efforts and not duplicate doing an inventory of existing capacities both in infrastructure, equipment and know-how’s, operating an Emergency Operations Center where key stakeholders in the affected areas are adequately represented. It is also necessary to sensitize, educate and prepare the same population to identify the signals that activate a response system to reduce that risk and so that impacts are reduced to a minimum. Previously these people must have knowledge of local community organization for risk management and have first aid training, community emergency plans, risk maps and resources of each community, and a volunteer corps for emergencies. The selection of indicators and signs and adaptation processes are significant elements for community preparedness and efficient care, by institutional managers, to the effects of extreme events.

Purpose of the activity

The establishing of Systems of monitoring of various climates and the environmental quality to attenuate the effects of climate change in rural communities and indigenous communities in two critical watersheds in Panama.

Given the vulnerability of the poor in rural and indigenous areas to the effects of climate change underscores the need for monitoring changes associated with climate change and implement adaptation and mitigation measures to prevent the deterioration of the precarious living conditions have prioritized these two basins prioritized by the PCCC: the Tabasará River (covers Ngäbe-Buglé in its upper ½ and the provinces of Chiriqui and Veraguas in its bottom) and the Chucunaque River (covers the Embera-Wounaan and Darien province), which were chosen for their high levels of degradation, pressure on natural resources and poverty levels. Another important aspect is that both rivers are among the most abundant and rushing the country; its provinces were physical and socioeconomic elements that make them particularly vulnerable to the impacts of climate change, mainly due to the high risk of flooding to which they are exposed populations, especially the Chucunaque basin.

Monitoring Climate Change (SMCC) for the Joint Programme has been vital for reducing the risks of population and natural resources related to climate change in both basins. This system allows you to track the strategy of adaptation and mitigation of the negative impacts of climate change in the PCCC. This is because the atmosphere does not always behave in a predictable, especially in the tropics, where the country is located. As a consequence, weather events taking place locally are difficult to predict in our latitudes.

This system consists of meteorological and hydrological networks with automatic weather stations designed to measure and record regularly for various meteorological variables to make predictions from numerical models for climate studies, and satellite transmission hydrological stations with rain sensors to measure river levels also have multiparameter monitoring equipment for water quality coupled. Tools such as satellite imagery, the use of global models to forecast rain and wind, the model guide to flash floods in Central America, the detection system of electric charges, complement this system. We performed well, buying laptops, laboratory reagents and equipment that allow analysis in site and laboratory samples of water and / or soil from both watersheds. This system has the potential to reveal changes in forest cover through the use of GIS and spectral images, incorporating results of risk assessments in the health of populations established in both basins, and for monitoring environmental risks, impact in agricultural production, and the occurrence of natural disasters.

The information collected by the system is useful for decision makers, risk managers, producers and the general population, since the use of modeling and monitoring tools Online allows visualization of worst-case scenarios that allow developing mitigation plans, adaptation processes and effective contingency plans. This was evident during the heavy rains which caused devastating floods in Chucunaque and by using information from satellite stations PCCC was possible to predict the magnitude of the effects and trigger early warning systems, preventing loss of life.

In this sense, information is being raised, managed and deployed in the interest of the different users. Various sources of information are used to strengthen the SMCC. So each partner institution shall ensure that the information sector is lifted, updated and integrated into the system and that it is accessible. This reduces the risk of fatalities, affected or destroyed houses, people affected and economic losses due to the effects. The information collected by the system is useful for decision makers, risk managers, producers and the general population, since the use of modeling and monitoring tools Online allows visualization of worst-case scenarios that allow developing mitigation plans, adaptation processes and effective contingency plans. This was evident during the heavy rains which caused devastating floods in Chucunaque and by using information from satellite stations PCCC was possible to predict the magnitude of the effects and trigger early warning systems, preventing loss of life.

In this sense, information is being raised, managed and deployed in the interest of the different users. Various sources of information are used to strengthen the SMCC. So each partner institution shall ensure that the information sector is lifted, updated and integrated into the system and that it is accessible. This reduces the risk of fatalities, affected or destroyed houses, people affected and economic losses due to the effects.

The basic idea was to demonstrate the consistency and joint working between agencies, participating institutions, stakeholders and the population affected so that the country benefits more than the support of the UN. This was achieved with the coordination, design, purchase of equipment and supplies, establishment of agreements and alliances, the training and the implementation of the Monitoring System for Climate Change priority PCCC both basins of Panama.

It further promoted the establishment interagency supports thus pierced to PAHO totaling U.S. $ 30,000 to strengthen the MOH and SINAPROC, and promoted exchanges with FAO to the topic of GIS and UNDP for communication and outreach issues , system monitoring climate change and GIS.

Original issue addressed by the activity

Initially each participating UN agency with their institutional counterparts, managed the implementation of a percentage the budget for the development of a series of activities related to their sectors PTA, these, environment (UNEP-UNDP-ANAM), agricultural production (FAO-MIDA), health and natural disasters (PAHO-WHO - SINAPROC-MINSA). Each agency complied with its own administrative and disbursement requirements for activities that corresponded within the PCCC PTA. However, to achieve product 1 of PCCC, it was necessary to establish a system for monitoring climate change that required the support and contribution of all participants in the PCC.

Often unsustainable management practices of soil and water resources involve the land degradation and increase the vulnerability of agriculture and forestry to climate change, which threatens the livelihoods, food security and health of inhabitants. Also, the wood resource extraction with the resulting deforestation causes the largest contribution of emissions of greenhouse gases in Panama, particularly in priority watersheds PC-CC, reviews the adverse effect of increased extreme weather events such as droughts and floods. The watershed inhabitants generally do not have adaptive tools that reduce the risk of losing everything, including their lives, when extreme events occur, so to have systems monitoring climate change, early warning systems and systems geographic information related to management plans, comprehensive management strategy, building plans and a communication strategy are key to reducing the vulnerability of these populations to the adverse effects of CC.

In Panama there existed the National Hydrometorological Network and did not have stations with satelite links with any of the priority basins of the PCCC. As ETESA national authority is formally generated by the country's official National Network and custody, it was decided to strengthen the network and leveraging the know-how of ETESA. Through an agreement with UNEP ETESA agrees to safeguard, update and protect stations bought by the SCCP and train and transfer the information generated by them SCCP users.

Both basins were "wise" with TK and people somehow interpret weather signs and animal behavior that allow decision making regarding the risks associated with extreme weather events. However, in times of dealing with the effects of climate change, very little information is scientific and technical traditional response capacity and anticipating impacts were integrated for effective and efficient care to reduce impacts. Another key element was the lack of local people what to do and how to adapt to these changes. One difficulty this was associated with the language used for the message to arrive locally. We build a participatory process and communication appropriate to each culture, with tools and methodologies that led to a better understanding of both the concepts and the reduced risks.

Con el esfuerzo conjunto de las instituciones del gobierno y de las agencias de la ONU, se han comprado los equipos, insumos y se han capacitado a las personas a nivel de ambas cuencas para atender situaciones de riesgos ante eventos extremos del clima en amabas cuencas del PC. Este Sistema de Monitoreo de Cambio Climático (SMCC) permitió obtener información valiosa, de alta calidad, precisión y relevancia, para reducir la vulnerabilidad e incrementar la capacidad de monitorear los procesos de adaptación y mitigación al cambio climático. Este Sistema estará conformado por el fortalecimiento de la red meteorológica e hidrológica instalada por ETESA, con estaciones automáticas de transmisión satelital con sensores de lluvias para medir niveles de los ríos, además, contará con un equipo de monitoreo multiparamétrico para calidad de las aguas acoplado. Las mismas podrán estar bajo la responsabilidad de ETESA. En este sentido, la información es adquirida, administrada, analizada y publicada por ETESA, según el interés y particular necesidad de cada usuario.

With the joint efforts of government institutions and UN agencies, have purchased the equipment, supplies and people have trained at both basins to address situations of risk to extreme weather events in basins loved PC. This Monitoring System Change (SMCC) yielded valuable information, high quality, accuracy and relevance, to reduce vulnerability and increase the ability to monitor the processes of adaptation and mitigation to climate change. This system will consist of strengthening the network of meteorological and hydrological ETESA installed with satellite transmission stations with automatic rain sensors to measure river levels also have multiparameter monitoring equipment for water quality coupled. The same will be the responsibility of ETESA. In this sense, information is acquired, managed, analyzed and published by ETESA, according to the interest and particular needs of each user.

Equipment Early Warning System (EWS) installed in communities along the river basin Chucunaque prevent possible negative effects of disasters caused by extreme weather events. The SAT has digital telemetric rain gauges, telemetric hydrological stations, rules for registration limn metrics graded river levels in populated areas vulnerable to flooding, and the conversion of conventional meteorological and hydrological stations of neighboring basins to the existing network telemetry . The SAT is being jointly coordinated by the Emergency Operations Center and the office of SINAPROC analysis, surveillance and weather, management of Hydrometeorology ETESA, and allowed in the first instance to reduce the risk of death due to the vulnerability of Tabasará river basins and Chucunaque, with the possibility of replication in other basins of the country vulnerable. In addition, the PC-CCP GIS allows the use and development of web tools, with the link map server on the Internet to receive, share information with geospatial databases specialized for detecting land use changes in both basins by monitoring carbon dynamics (agriculture, forestry, livestock uses, ecological, etc..), in order to stabilize the carbon cycle in terrestrial systems, and allow monitoring of indicators based on natural disasters seasonally to provide timely and minimize risk.

Strategy / approach chosen to address the issue

Basic criteria are establish a monitoring system in a participatory climate change from a workshop on indicators applied to four important sectors for local development, environmental, farming, health and disaster risk. Priority is given, from there, the purchase of equipment and basic system requirements and with the approval of key stakeholders.

Alliances are established through the signing of agreements for the purchase, management and development d system components, monitoring hydrometeorology variables, water quality, agricultural production, health and vulnerability.

Approximations are made with the authorities and local leaders before proceeding with the installation of field equipment and strengthened the relationship with indigenous peoples from the establishment of joint commitments and firm alliances.

To enhance capacity and institutional local climate monitoring and early warning through local plans and institutional strengthening, risk management plans, risk maps, purchase of equipment, manuals , guides and trainings, torkshops Community Organization for Risk Management and Community First Aid which of them were generated Community Emergency Plans, risk maps and resources of each community.

Finally, to inform and socialize formation of local promoters and climate change, local radio communicators are trained for.

Implementation of the strategy / chosen approach

A key element was the leadership of UNEP approach in strategy to key stakeholders of both basins through the development of technical meetings with institutional partners and UN agencies were competent with systems monitoring climate change, which were selected hydro meteorological parameters, water quality, soil health, early warning system and geographic information systems, also identifying capabilities already installed. This made it possible to refine the system requirements and the selection of sites for installation of equipment. In both basins became a local approach work with community leaders where they are explained, in sessions open to the community, which meant monitoring systems, the benefit of having them and the relationship with existing traditional knowledge, complementing the gathering of information with the selected instruments. This allowed the communities to take ownership of the system, the security of computers and use the information to reduce risks to the attention of the vulnerability to the adverse effects of climate change. It was so communities were selected that would be responsible for the safety of the equipment, the organization of the risk plans and training for attention to early warnings. This has enabled the leveraging of USAID funds, extending the SAT component SMCC all Basin communities, will also enable replicability in other basins through construction methodological manuals and guides local and institutional strengthening.

Results and Impacts

Strategic Alliances were signed with ETESA, UTP, MINSA, SINAPROC, CEW, among others, for the institutional strengthening of the institutions of government and traditional authorities counterparts, monitoring systems and climate change early warning for the attention to vulnerability DC populations both basins.

There are manuals and booklets environmental law, climate change and human development in Spanish and are translated into the languages Emberá Wounan, Dulegaya Ngäbe and as a contribution to the rescue of the indigenous languages of the areas of where intervention involving UNEP leader. It also has a comprehensive guide to basic training in Geographic Information Systems.

Hydro meteorology has real-time information and early warning in both basins and is channeled to prevent the irreversible effects of extreme weather events and also play a role social care communities and exchange between cultures and territories that are connected Wargandi Guna district areas and Embera Wounan well as Buglé Ngäbe with the National Civil Protection System, allowing immediate attention to any signs of danger.

The projects are feature adaptation and mitigation to climate change, which are being developed by small farmers, school teachers, working men and women of the basins that as beneficiaries of the support of UNEP and the Joint were responsible not only to comply with the provisions of the financing agreement but the transfer of its ability the knowledge derived from these projects to others within the watershed, including the development of field school students involving multipliers.

It has radio programs, educational material and videos, among others, in addition to having trained 80 environmental promoters and 25 broadcasters whose commitment to the PCC is to work at the watershed awareness and community ownership of climate change issues, water resource management and sustainable development.

Evidence

Agreements of strategic alliances:

  • SSFA-ROLAC-005/2009 between UNEP and UTP for the development of a GIS Training Plan
  • SSFA-ROLAC-012/2009 between UNEP and development SINAPROC
  • SSFA-SAT-ROLAC001-2012 between NUMA and SINAPROC for strengthening SINAPROC GIS.
  • SSFA-ROLAC-002-2012 between NUMA and MINSA GIS strengthening MOH - MOH.
  • SSFA-ROLAC-001/2010 between UNEP and the development ETESA
  • SMCC-MOU-ROLAC002-2010 between UNEP and Congress Emberá Wounan to strengthen traditional authorities Wounan Emberá
  • SSFA-ROLAC-009/2010 between UNEP and UTP for the technical support ofPCCC
  • UNEP andSSFA/ROLAC-021/2010 Technology Foundation of Panama to strengthen development of ANAM for attention to climate change in the basins and identifying pollution sources in terrestrial basins loved
  • SSFA/ROLAC-020/2011 between UNEP and Technology Foundation of Panama to strengthen government institutions PCC participants and local stakeholders in GIS, climate change and risk management
  • SSFA / ROLAC-021/2011 between UNEP and Natura Foundation for administration, monitoring and evaluation of adaptation and mitigation of climate change on Tabasará river basin.

Documents:

  • Guide for basic training in Geographic Information Systems.
  • Strengthening Plan traditional authorities of the Embera Wounan.
  • Strengthening Plan Traditional Authorities of the Kuna of Wargandi.
  • Strengthening Plan Local Authorities Chucunaque River Basin.
  • Strengthening Plan of Local Authorities of the Tabasará River Basin.
  • Primers Climate Change in native language (climate change, human development, and environmental law).
  • Manuals Environmental Law (print and digital).
  • DVD video on Environmental Law in native language.

Programs PCCC radio and video: http :/ / programas-conjuntos.onu.org.pa/cambio-climatico /

Next Steps

Promotion A-ONE concept and interagency coordination

With strong leadership and experience, UNEP will promote under the UNDAF, and other initiatives that have been identified or are in progress, replica actionable monitoring systems of climate change on critical watersheds of Panama and the region, plans to work with the government of Panama and other nations, where through administrative and technical mechanisms can meet basic needs for reducing vulnerability to climate change as a central component of the environment

Strategic Alliances

UNEP to through agreements with various stakeholders in the watershed and Tabasará Chucunaque, shall jointly evaluate the effectiveness of the actions taken and identify new ways of working with these actors for sustainable monitoring systems in each basin SCCP Priority. As part of the platforms created by the SCCP, UNEP and its partners will expand joint activities within watersheds and propose intervened and replicate the experience of monitoring climate change in other critical watersheds. A key element will be the development of predictive scenarios courses, research and development, academic programs with geographic information systems applied to the monitoring, management and prevention of risks caused by climate change.

Socialization of the concept of monitoring climate change in river basins vulnerable to CC.

The key part of building plans, activities and environmental advocates Communication for Development, UNEP through the channeling of support and international fundraising, can replicate the design process, development and implementation of the monitoring of climate change on watersheds.

Potential replication / application

Products developed by UNEP and its national counterpart, the National Environmental Authority have sufficient technical and scientific basis for replication in other climate change critical watersheds. It must join forces with initiatives such as the CAF, UN-REDD and Forestry XXI where the experience can reduce the impacts of CC.

Information products

  • Plan to Strengthen Traditional Authorities of the Embera Wounan.
  • Strengthening Plan Traditional Authorities of the Kuna of Wargandi.
  • Strengthening Plan of Traditional Authorities Ngäbe Buglé.
  • Strengthening Plan Basin Local Authorities Chucunaque River.
  • GIS Training Plan for ANAM.
  • Guide to basic training in Information Systems Geographic.
  • Strengthening Plan to the National Environmental Authority for climate change in watersheds.
  • Action plans for the control of terrestrial contamination sources in river basins and Chucunaque Tabasará.
  • Strengthening Plan Local Authorities Tabasará River Basin.
  • Primers Climate Change in native language (climate change, human development, and environmental law).
  • Manuals Environmental Law (print and digital).
  • DVD video on Environmental Law in native language.
  • Programs PCCC radio and video: http://programas-conjuntos.onu.org.pa/cambio-climatico/

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